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True Bacteria

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Scanning Electron Micrograph of EnterococcusScanning Electron Micrograph of Pseudomonas aeruginosaA photomicrograph of Bacillus anthracis bacteria using Gram stain technique
taxon links [up-->]Proteobacteria [up-->]Fusobacteria [up-->]Gemmatimonadetes [up-->]Aquificae [up-->]Chlamydiae [up-->]Planctomycetes [up-->]Nitrospira [up-->]Chloroflexi [up-->]Firmicutes [up-->]Deferribacteres [up-->]Dictyoglomi [up-->]Thermomicrobia [up-->]Bacteroidetes [up-->]Actinobacteria [up-->]Fibrobacteres [up-->]Deinococcus-Thermus [up-->]Thermotogae [up-->]Chrysiogenetes [up-->]Acidobacteria [up-->]Spirochaetes [up-->]Chlorobi [up-->]Verrucomicrobia [up-->]Thermodesulfobacteria [up-->]Cyanobacteria [down<--]Life on Earth Interpreting the tree
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This tree diagram shows the relationships between several groups of organisms.

The root of the current tree connects the organisms featured in this tree to their containing group and the rest of the Tree of Life. The basal branching point in the tree represents the ancestor of the other groups in the tree. This ancestor diversified over time into several descendent subgroups, which are represented as internal nodes and terminal taxa to the right.

example of a tree diagram

You can click on the root to travel down the Tree of Life all the way to the root of all Life, and you can click on the names of descendent subgroups to travel up the Tree of Life all the way to individual species.

For more information on ToL tree formatting, please see Interpreting the Tree or Classification. To learn more about phylogenetic trees, please visit our Phylogenetic Biology pages.

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Containing group: Life on Earth

Other Names for Eubacteria


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Andersson, S. G. E., A. Zomorodipour, J. O. Andersson, T. Sicheritz-Ponten, U. C. M. Alsmark, R. M. Podowski, A. K. Naslund, A. S. Eriksson, H. H. Winkler, and C. G. Kurland. 1998. The genome sequence of Rickettsia prowazekii and the origin of mitochondria. Nature 396:133-140.

Balows, A., H.G. Träper, M. Dworkin, W. Harder, and K.-H. Schleifer (eds.). 1992. The Prokaryotes. A Handbook on the Biology of Bacteria: Ecophysiology, Isolation, Identification, Applications. Second edition, Volumes I-IV. Springer Verlag, New York.

Battistuzzi, F. U., A. Feijao, and A. B. Hedges. 2004. A genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization of land. BMC Evolutionary Biology 4:44-.

Battistuzzi, F. U. and A. B. Hedges. 2009. A major clade of prokaryotes with ancient adaptations to life on land. Molecular Biology and Evolution 26(2):335-343; doi:10.1093/molbev/msn247

Bern, M. and D. Goldberg. 2005. Automatic selection of representative proteins for bacterial phylogeny. BMC Evolutionary Biology 5:34-.

Boone, D. R., R.W. Castenholz, and G.M. Garrity. 2001. Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology. Springer, New York.

Brochier, C., E. Bapteste, D. Moreira, and H. Philippe. 2002. Eubacterial phylogeny based on translational apparatus proteins.

Trends in Genetics 18:1-5.

Brown, J. R. , C. J. Douady, M. J. Italia, W. E. Marshall, and M. J. Stanhope. 2001. Universal trees based on large combined protein sequence data sets. Nature Genetics 28:281-285.

Bustard, K. and R. S. Gupta. 1997. The sequences of heat shock protein 40 (DnaJ) homologs provide evidence for a close evolutionary relationship between the Deinococcus-Thermus group and cyanobacteria. Journal of Molecular Evolution 45:193-205.

Castro, H. F., N. H. Williams, and A. Ogram. 2000. Phylogeny of sulfate-reducing bacteria. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 31:1-9.

Cavalier-Smith, T. 2002. The neomuran origin of archaebacteria, the negibacterial root of the universal tree and bacterial megaclassification. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionay Microbiology 52:7-76.

Coenye, T. and P. Vandamme. 2004. A genomic perspective on the relationship between the Aquificales and the epsilon-Proteobacteria. Syst Appl. Microbiol. 27:313-322.

Daubin, V., M. Gouy, and G. Perriere. 2002. A phylogenomic approach to bacterial phylogeny: Evidence of a core of genes sharing a common history. Genome Research 2(7):1080-1090.

DeLong E. F. and N. R. Pace. 2001. Environmental diversity of Bacteria and Archaea. Systematic Biology 50:470-478.

Eisen, J. A. 1995. The RecA protein as a model molecule for molecular systematic studies of bacteria: Comparison of trees of RecAs and 16S rRNAs from the same species. Journal of Molecular Evolution 41:1105-1123. Molecular Biology and Evolution 21(9):1643-1660.

Emelyanov, V. V. and B. V. Sinitsyn. 1999. A groE-based phylogenetic analysis shows very close evolutionary relationship between mitochondria and Rickettsia. Russian Journal of Genetics 35:618-627.

Esser, C., N. Ahmadinejad, C. Wiegand, C. Rotte, F. Sebastiani, G. Gelius-Dietrich, K. Henze, E. Kretschmann, E. Richly, D. Leister, D. Bryant, M. A. Steel, P. J. Lockhart, D. Penny and W. Martin. 2004. A genome phylogeny for mitochondria among alpha-proteobacteria and a predominantly eubacterial ancestry of yeast nuclear genes.

Fox, G. E., E. Stackebrandt, R. B. Hespell, J. Gibson, J. Maniloff, T. A. Dyer, R. S. Wolfe, W. E. Balch, R. S. Tanner, L. J. Magrum, L. B. Zablen, R. Blakemore, R. Gupta, L. Bonen, B. J. Lewis, D. A. Stahl, K. R. Luehrsen, K. N. Chen, and C. R. Woese. 1980. The phylogeny of prokaryotes. Science 209:457-463.

Garrity, G. M., J. A. Bell, and T. G. Lilburn. 2004. Taxonomic Outline of the Prokaryotes. Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Second Edition. Release 5.0.

Gray, M. W., G. Burger, and B. F. Lang. 1999. Mitochondrial evolution. Science 283:1476-1481.

Griffiths, E. and R. S. Gupta. 2004. Signature sequences in diverse proteins provide evidence for the late divergence of the Order Aquificales. Int Microbiol. 7:41-52.

Gruber, T. M. and D. A. Bryant. 1997. Molecular systematic studies of eubacteria, using sigma(70)-type sigma factors of group 1 and group 2. Journal of Bacteriology 179:1734-1747.

Gupta, R. S. 1997. Protein phylogenies and signature sequences: Evolutionary relationships within prokaryotes and between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek International Journal of General and Molecular Microbiology 72:49-61.

Gupta, R. S. 1998. Protein phylogenies and signature sequences: A reappraisal of evolutionary relationships among archaebacteria, eubacteria, and eukaryotes. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 62:1435-1491.

Gupta, R. S. 2000. The phylogeny of proteobacteria: relationships to other eubacterial phyla and eukaryotes. FEMS Microbiology Reviews 24(4):367-402.

Gupta, R. S. 2004. The phylogeny and signature sequences characteristics of Fibrobacteres, Chlorobi, and Bacteroidetes. Critical Reviews in Microbiology 30(2):123-143.

Gupta, R.S., K. Bustard, M. Falah, D. Singh. 1997. Sequencing of heat shock protein 70 (DnaK) homologs from Deinococcus proteolyticus and Thermomicrobium roseum and their integration in a protein-based phylogeny of prokaryotes. Journal of Bacteriology 179:345-357.

Gupta, R.S. and E. Griffiths. 2002. Critical issues in bacterial phylogeny. Theoretical Population Biology 61(4):423-434.

Gupta, R. S., T. Mukhtar, and B. Singh. 1999. Evolutionary relationships among photosynthetic prokaryotes (Heliobacterium chlorum, Chloroflexus aurantiacus, cyanobacteria, Chlorobium tepidum and proteobacteria): implications regarding the origin of photosynthesis. Molecular Microbiology 32:893-906.

Huang, W. M. 1996. Bacterial diversity based on type II DNA topoisomerase genes. Annual Review of Genetics 30:79-107.

Huang, Y. P. and J. Ito. 1999. DNA polymerase C of the thermophilic bacterium Thermus aquaticus: Classification and phylogenetic analysis of the family C DNA polymerases. Journal of Molecular Evolution 48:756-769.

Hugenholtz, P., B. M. Goebel, and N. R. Pace. 1998. Impact of culture-independent studies on the emerging phylogenetic view of bacterial diversity. Journal of Bacteriology 180:4765-4774.

Kunisawa, T. 2006. Dichotomy of major bacterial phyla inferred from gene arrangement comparisons. J. of Theor. Biol. 239:367-375.

Lawrence, J. G. and H. Ochman. 1998. Molecular archaeology of the Escherichia coli genome. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 95:9413-9417.

Liu, R. and H. Ochman. 2007. Stepwise formation of the bacterial flagellar system. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 104(17):7116-7121.

Ludwig, W., J. Neumaier, N. Klugbauer, E. Brockmann, C. Roller, S. Jilg, K. Reetz, I. Schachtner, A. Ludvigsen, M. Bachleitner, U. Fischer, and K. H. Schleifer. 1993. Phylogenetic relationships of Bacteria based on comparative sequence analysis of elongation factor Tu and ATP-synthase beta-subunit genes. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek International Journal of General and Molecular Microbiology 64:285-305.

Ludwig, W., O. Strunk, S. Klugbauer, N. Klugbauer, M. Weizenegger , J. Neumaier, M. Bachleitner, and K. H. Schleifer. 1998. Bacterial phylogeny based on comparative sequence analysis. Electrophoresis 19:554-568.

Moran, N. and P. Baumann. 1994. Phylogenetics of cytoplasmically inherited microorganisms of arthropods. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 9:15-20.

Ochman, H., S. Elwyn, and N. A. Moran. 1999. Calibrating bacterial evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 96:12638-12643.

Olsen, G. J. and C. R. Woese. 1993. Ribosomal RNA: a key to phylogeny. FASEB Journal 7:113-23.

Olsen, G. J., C. R. Woese, and R. Overbeek. 1994. The winds of (evolutionary) change: breathing new life into microbiology. Journal of Bacteriology 176:1-6.

Pace, N. R. 1997. A molecular view of microbial diversity and the biosphere. Science 276:734-740.

Pace, N. R. 1999. Microbial ecology and diversity. ASM News 65:328-333.

Pierson, B. K. 1994. The emergence, diversification, and role of photosynthetic bacteria. Pages 161-180 in Early Life on Earth, Nobel Symposium No. 84 (Bengtson, S., ed.). Columbia University Press, New York.

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Sicheritz-Ponten, T., C. G. Kurland, and S. G. E. Andersson. 1998. A phylogenetic analysis of the cytochrome b and cytochrome c oxidase I genes supports an origin of mitochondria from within the Rickettsiaceae. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta Bioenergetics 1365:545-551.

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Teichmann, S. A. and G. Mitchison. 1999. Is there phylogenetic signal in prokaryote proteins? Journal of Molecular Evolution 49:98-107.

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Information on the Internet

Title Illustrations
Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window
Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window
Scanning Electron Micrograph of Enterococcus
Scientific Name Enterococcus
Comments Scanning Electron Micrograph of Enterococcus
Creator CDC/Janice Carr
Specimen Condition Dead Specimen
Source Collection Public Health Image Library (Centers for Disease Control)
Scanning Electron Micrograph of Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Scientific Name Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Comments Scanning Electron Micrograph of Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Creator CDC/Janice Carr
Specimen Condition Dead Specimen
Source Collection Public Health Image Library (Centers for Disease Control)
A photomicrograph of Bacillus anthracis bacteria using Gram stain technique
Scientific Name Bacillus anthracis
Comments A photomicrograph of the Anthrax bacterium, Bacillus anthracis, using Gram stain technique
Specimen Condition Dead Specimen
Source Collection Public Health Image Library (Centers for Disease Control)
About This Page

Page: Tree of Life Eubacteria. True Bacteria. The TEXT of this page is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License - Version 3.0. Note that images and other media featured on this page are each governed by their own license, and they may or may not be available for reuse. Click on an image or a media link to access the media data window, which provides the relevant licensing information. For the general terms and conditions of ToL material reuse and redistribution, please see the Tree of Life Copyright Policies.

Citing this page:

Tree of Life Web Project. 2006. Eubacteria. True Bacteria. Version 10 March 2006 (temporary). http://tolweb.org/Eubacteria/2/2006.03.10 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/

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This page is a Tree of Life Branch Page.

Each ToL branch page provides a synopsis of the characteristics of a group of organisms representing a branch of the Tree of Life. The major distinction between a branch and a leaf of the Tree of Life is that each branch can be further subdivided into descendent branches, that is, subgroups representing distinct genetic lineages.

For a more detailed explanation of the different ToL page types, have a look at the Structure of the Tree of Life page.

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